Quentin Skinner argued that several critical modern innovations in contract theory can be found in the writings of French Calvinists and Huguenots, whose work in turn was invoked by writers in the Netherlands who opposed their submission to Spain, and later by Catholics in England. [11] Francisco Suárez (1548-1617) of the Salamanca School could be considered an early theorist of the social contract, who theorized natural law in order to restrict the divine right of absolute monarchy. All these groups were made to articulate notions of popular sovereignty through a social alliance or contract, and all these arguments began with proto-“state of nature” arguments, so the basis of politics is that everyone is inherently free to submit to any government. Philip Pettit


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