Heavy fighting ended after a 2015 ceasefire, but periodic clashes continue to kill Ukrainian soldiers, separatists and civilians. Government officials and pro-Russian separatists have agreed on the terms of a comprehensive ceasefire in eastern Ukraine. European leaders had asked for such an agreement before agreeing on a new summit on Ukraine. Both practical and political factors may have contributed to the success of the July ceasefire. So far, a new ceasefire agreement has been reached on average every three months. The adoption of the ceasefire in July lasted more than six months, giving TCG representatives more time to plan and implement new developments. During this period, the Ukrainian delegation to the TCG underwent great changes. Almost all Ukrainian representatives were replaced with the aim of giving the delegation the power to take decisions independently and to contribute to the execution of those decisions (Ukrinform, May 8, 2020); Ukrinform, May 6, 2020). The Protocol on the Results of the Consultations of the Trilateral Contact Group or well known as the Minsk Protocol is an agreement to end the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine, signed on 5 September 2014 by representatives of that country, the Russian Federation, the Donetsk People`s Republic (DPR), the Luhansk People`s Republic (LPR) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). [1][2][3] It was signed under the auspices of the OSCE following extensive discussions in Minsk, Belarus. The agreement, which followed several earlier attempts to end fighting in Donbass, implemented an immediate ceasefire.

It failed to end the fighting in Donbass[4], followed by a new package of measures called Minsk II, concluded on 12 February 2015. [5] Nor could it stop the fighting, but the Minsk agreements remain the basis for any future solution to the conflict, as agreed at the Normandy format meeting. The new agreement provides for the establishment of a coordination mechanism to respond to ceasefire violations, which provides for the convening of an extraordinary meeting of the TCG by facilitating the Joint Monitoring and Coordination Centre (JCCC). The JCCC is a group of representatives from Ukraine, Russia and the Russian-led DNR and NRL armed formations responsible for respecting the agreements reached by the TCG. If this coordination mechanism does not reduce the fighting, the agreement provides for retaliatory fire after the issuance of an order by the respective armed forces, a public statement on these orders and a notification to the TCG (OSCE SMM-Ukraine, July 23, 2020). This approach, which allows front-end units to respond to ceasefire violations, can help reduce accidental escalations, although intentional escalations are still possible if Russia or Ukraine calculate that such an escalation is beneficial. The agreement was drawn up by the Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine, composed of representatives of Ukraine, Russia and the OSCE. [6] The group was established in June to facilitate dialogue and conflict resolution in eastern and southern Ukraine. On 31 July, 26 August, 1 September and 5 On 27 September 2014, the group met with informal representatives of the separatist Donetsk and Luhansk People`s Republics. . .



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